Symptoms may appear rapidly and include respiratory distress, faintness, an itching rash, swelling of the face and vomiting with abdominal pain, cramp or diarrhoea. Medical assistance should be sought immediately where anaphylactic shock is suspected. Wasp stings can be treated with a cold compress and antihistamine creams applied within twenty minutes of stinging. A suitable antiseptic cream should also be rubbed into the skin to prevent infection.
Wasp nests are located underground, in buildings, trees or bushes and constructed of wasp paper made by chewing wood and other plant debris with saliva. First a canopy is fixed to the top of the nest location and then a central pedicel from which the nest is suspended. The queen then builds a layer of hexagonal downward-facing cells radically from the pedicel. Layers of wasp paper envelop the nest providing protection from the elements and conserving heat.